By RISHI RAJ (MBBS..1st year…HIND INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCE)
Cancer is basically the loss of control of growth and development of cells which may lead to excessive proliferation and speed of cell.
CANCER DERIVED FROM A LATIN WORD CRAB.
UNCONTROLLED GROWTH OF CELL TRANSFORM INTO TUMORS.
Oncology is the branch which is related to the study of cancer.
In normal condition, the cell division is under strict control.
The cell differentiate, divide and die in a sequential manner in healthy organism.
It is of two types :-
1 .BENIGN TUMOR
2 .MALIGNANT TUMOR
**1 BENIGN TUMOR
- It grows slowly, may attain large size but it may remains confined to the site of origin and does not spread to the other part of body.
- It it does not means,it is not dangerous.
**2 MALIGNANT TUMOR
- It it grow very rapidly invading and damaging the surrounding tissue.
- This type of tumor cell actively divide and grow and also starve the normal cell for vital nutrients.
- In this type of tumor cell get detached from the tumor cell and though blood goes to different part of the body and wherever they get logged form a new tumor cell.
ACCORDING TO WHO :-
Cancer is the most leading cause of death globally for an estimate in 9.6 million deaths occur due to cancer in 2018.
The most common cancer are
➤Lung (2.09 million cases
➤Breast (2.09 million cases)
➤Colorectal (1.80 million cases)
➤Prostate (1.28 million cases)
➤Skin cancer (non-melanoma) (1.04 million cases)
➤Stomach (1.03 million cases)
Lung (1.76 million deaths)
➤Colorectal (862 000 deaths)
➤Stomach (783 000 deaths)
➤Liver (782 000 deaths)
➤Breast (627 000 deaths)
Cause of cancer
It may be physical cause
👉It may be chemical cause
👉It may be genetic cause
👉It may be due to environmental fator .
A survey in USA has shown that about 90%of cancer are due to avoidable factor such as tobacco , pollution , alcohol ,diet etc.
Generally most of the cancer are caused by chemical carcinogens , radiation energy and viruses.
👉These agents can cause alterations in genetic material resulting into oncogenic transformation that can cause cancer .
✍️ sharp teeth may cause tounge cancer .
👉 Kashmiri people keep Kangri close to skin that may cause skin cancer and this skin cancer is called kangri cancer.
✍️ From a survey about an 80% of cancer are caused by chemical carcinogens in nature.Entry of chemicals into the body through.
Such as in dye worker urinary bladder cancer is common
👉DIET :- Contamination of foodstuff.👉DRUGS :- Certain therapeutic drugs can be carcinogens.
LIFE STYLE :- Cigarette smoking , alcohol consumption.
👉u.v rays ,x-rays and gama rays these all are carcinogens in nature.
TREATMENT OF CANCER
✍️Surgery :-removal of entire cancerous tissue.
Most of the cancers of treated by combination of Surgery ,drugs and radiation therapy.
CANCER DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS
👉Early detection of cancer can help in sucessful treatment in many cases.👉Cancer detection is based on biopsy and histopathological studies of the tissue,blood ,bone marrow test for increased cell counts.
👉To detect cancers of internal organs , techniques like radiography,CT (computed tomography),and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
PREVENTION OF CANCER
- Use use of antioxidant namely vitamin E, beta- carotene, vitamin- C and selenium.
- Antioxidants antioxidants stimulate body immune system and detoxify carcinogens.
- Green green vegetables and fruits are also used to prevent cancer, they are regarded as antioxidant.